Essential Supplements During Pregnancy - Although during pregnancy the body needs more nutrients, there are still limits the permitted levels of nutrients. The use of supplements that do not fit the daily needs, can lead to overdose and cause unwanted side effects. This is especially true in the use of vitamin or mineral supplements without supervision, especially iron, zinc, selenium and vitamins A, B, C and D. Vitamin and mineral intake is more than twice the daily requirement during pregnancy is not recommended. Supplements needed during pregnancy including folic acid, iron, calcium, zinc, and various vitamins.
1. Folic acid
Folic acid is one type of vitamin B. Folic acid is needed since before pregnancy and in the early trimester of pregnancy (12 weeks) to prevent neural defects, as much as 0.4 mg (400 micrograms) a day. Nerve defects may occur even before the mother knows she is pregnant, due to neurological development occurs in the early weeks of pregnancy. To that end, every mother is planning to become pregnant, are encouraged to consume folic acid from 3 months before pregnancy.
Folic acid found in foods like green vegetables, citrus fruits, and nuts. Folic acid is often added to foods such as cereals, pasta, bread, and rice. However, folic acid daily requirement difficult to achieve if only rely on natural food sources. Therefore, every woman of childbearing age are encouraged to take supplements of acid number 0.4 mg per day.
In women who have a history of birth defects of children with neurological, or have a high risk such as diabetes, hemolytic anemia, twin pregnancy, or taking certain drugs require higher doses of folic acid 4-5 mg per day. At this objec, sebagiknya folic acid supplementation is given separately and not as a multivitamin product.
Iron in red blood cells help carry oxygen around the body, including to the fetus. Mothers need more iron during pregnancy to support fetal growth and produce extra blood. During pregnancy, especially in the middle trimester, iron in the mother will be transferred to many of the fetus and placenta, the addition of blood to meet the needs of mothers, as well as a backup in case of bleeding during childbirth. Therefore, the daily food is rarely able to meet this increasing demand and pregnant women should get iron supplementation. If iron deficiency, the mother will be prone to anemia. At the time of pregnancy, every mother should check hemoglobin levels, and repeated 28 weeks of gestation Saar.
The number of daily requirement of iron during pregnancy is about 27 mg per day. Either iron supplements or eat on an empty stomach along with the source of vitamin C (such as fruit juice) to enhance absorption. When taking iron supplements is important to tell your doctor, because there are drugs that should not be taken together with iron.
Iodine deficiency recently increased, due to the decrease in salt intake. Recent research shows iodine deficiency will lead to even mild hypothyroidism can lead to complications in the future. Therefore, iodine deficiency during pregnancy is very important preventable. For mothers who live in areas with high levels of iodine deficiency, iodine supplements are highly recommended. While the mother outside the area, can increase the consumption of foods rich in iodine, choose iodised salt or pregnancy supplements that also contain iodine.
Not all vitamins should be consumed as a supplement during pregnancy. Most of the vitamin needs can be met with daily food consumption. However, there are some circumstances that make pregnant women continue taking vitamin supplements.
Vitamin B12: Vitamin B12 supplements are essential for maternal vegetarian or vegan because most sources of vitamin B12 found in meat. Supplementation is recommended at 6 mcg per day. Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause neurological disorders in infants.
Vitamin D: the study showed high rates of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women. Vitamin D is important for the growth of fetal bones and teeth, and prevents osteoporosis in women. The recommended amount during pregnancy is between 200-400 IU,
Vitamin K: Vitamin K is important is consumed during the final trimester of pregnancy in women with cholestasis (impaired bile ducts).
There is no research evidence showing the importance of routine supplementation of other vitamins such as vitamin A, C, and E. In fact, excessive consumption of vitamins, particularly fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E, K) can be dangerous.
If there is no deficiency of vitamin D, calcium needs will be met from the daily consumption, both during pregnancy and lactation. However, in women with lactose intolerance that can not consume milk and its products, or vulnerable low-calcium diet, calcium supplementation is recommended to get at 1200 mg / day.
Daily needs of various nutrients during pregnancy or childbirth in general increased. This does not mean women should consume as much food and supplements to meet daily requirements of nutrients every day. Consuming a variety of foods and appropriate the recommended amount of nutrients will increase compliance to mother or fetus.
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2. The American Congress of Obstetrician and Gynaecologist. Nutrition during pregnancy; education pamphlet. USA; 2010.
3. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetrics and Gynaecologist. Vitamin and minerals supplementation in pregnancy. 2008.
4. USDA. My pyramid in action: dietary supplement during pregnancy and breastfeeding. 2007.